Teaching Strategies That Help Students Learn
Written by: Sara J. Coffman
Published On: April 19, 2013
What skills do you wish your students had prior to taking your course? Reading comprehension, time management, listening, note-taking, critical thinking, test-taking? Let's face it, most students could benefit from taking a course in learning how to learn. But who wants to take a study skills class?
My solution: sneak study skills into your class along with the content.
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- Select a textbook that has learning aids (study guides, online materials, and/or audiotapes) and encourage your students to use them. Point out features in the book that students can use to help them study and review text material.
- Craft your syllabus carefully. By setting the right tone, you can motivate students. For example, here's an "encouraging" excerpt from an English syllabus:
"I realize that some students are shy and consequently do not participate much in class even though they are prepared. It would be unfair if they suffered on their grades because of this. Therefore, class participation can only help students and will never hurt them. But I do wish to emphasize that you should feel free to express your views in class, that your ideas will always be treated with respect, and that I will do everything I possibly can to create a class environment in which you will be comfortable participating in discussions."
- Design clear, meaningful assignments that enable students to accomplish course objectives.
- Space the workload out evenly throughout the semester.
- If students don't master an assignment the first time, give them constructive feedback, and the chance to redo it. You may not want to do this for every assignment, but doing it for one early in the course "sets the bar" and encourages them to do quality work.
The first week:
- If your class is small, set up interviews with students individually or in pairs to find out why they're taking the course and what they want to get out of it. Not only will you learn about who's in the class, but you'll increase students' commitment to work hard and communicate with you. If the class is large, use email to collect information about students and to establish connections.
- Talk to students about how to study for your course. Give them a list of study techniques recommended by students who've taken the course and earned A's.
- Early in the course, have students use their textbooks in class. By using class time, you acknowledge the book's value. If you can't afford class time, have students do a homework assignment that they can't complete without using the book.
- Offer students time management suggestions. How much time should they be spending on the course? Talk about how daily study keeps the information fresh and helps avoid cramming. Show how longer assignments can be broken into small pieces.
Techniques for teaching:
- Start class with something that gets their attention and then quickly review what was covered in the previous class.
- Show students "tricks of the trade," or how you learned the material. Talk aloud when you solve a problem. Show students what you do when you get stuck.
- Provide a partial outline and have your students fill in the missing material during the lecture.
- Leave five minutes at the end of each class for students to check their notes with those of their neighbor, review major ideas, and indicate what they thought was important and why.
- Assign heterogeneous study groups prior to the first exam, have them exchange contact information, and require a one-hour study session outside of class. Help them be more productive by providing a study guide and/or sample test questions they can submit for bonus points.
- Give students frequent tests and constructive feedback throughout the course.
- Give a practice test before the actual exam so students get a feel for the types of questions you ask. If you use essay questions, share an example of an A, C, and F answer.
- Take class time to go over the first exam. Talk in detail about the questions most often missed. Encourage debate. Ask students for evidence that supports the answers they chose. Defer decisions about accepting other options until the next class session and then announce your decision. Students can continue the discussion of individual items during office hours.
- Have students analyze the first exam, or quiz, by writing you a memo that responds to questions like these:
a) Was it harder than expected? Why?
b) Were any of the questions a complete surprise? If so, which ones?
c) Were there any questions you didn't understand or found confusing? If so, rewrite them using your own words.
d) What one change are you going to make when studying for the next quiz?
e) What study strategy did you use that worked well?
- Invite students who do poorly on the first exam to come talk to you. Work with them to figure out the problem and how it might be corrected for the next exam. Is it test anxiety? Are they taking too many courses and working too many hours? Do they need to be using different study strategies?
These simple strategies teach students learning skills that will make them better students in every course.
Contact Sara Coffman at firstname.lastname@example.org.
This article originally appeared in the newsletter The Teaching Professor 23.7 (2009): 1, 8. The Teaching Professor is a lively, informative newsletter with a singular purpose: to provide ideas and insight to educators who are passionate about teaching.